mardi 12 août 2014

“Different Nations And Their Culture: Indonesia, Philippines, and Russia”

“Different Nations And Their Culture: Indonesia, Philippines, and Russia”
Putu Ratih Pertiwi, Percy Piedad Villaruel, Galina Timashova
Master 2 Tourism and Hospitality Management
Université Angers

Being immersed with different people from different country gives you an opportunity to have an awareness on cultural differences. Awareness to culture is the foundation of communication to understand ourselves and to become aware to our behaviour, values, beliefs and perception. This will explain how things do in that way. How we see things in a different perspective and how we react on different situation.
Today, in this globalisation era we find cross-culture everywhere, for exemple we have western culture, eastern culture, latin culture, middle-eastern culture, and african culture especially in big city of the country like New York, Paris, London, etc where the population come from all over the world and the culture is influenced by the many groups of people who make up the country.
To be accepeted in society, we have to know how to communicate with the others, whether in little scoop society for exemple within the family member where we almost have the same culture or moreover when we are in bigger scoop where we have so many different culture for exemple in international society which is going to be more complicated.
Sometimes culture can be a wall for us but when we have an effort to understand and appreciate the others, certainly we can break the wall. Culture by it self could be defined as the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts.[1]
Therefore, we need to be able to tolerate the other foreign culture to be accepeted by the others. Three of us were always have conversation about our own country of origin.  From our day to day conversation we were able to share our experiences, our values and our cultural background that lead us to see and do things in a certain way. It is very helpful to gather feedback from foreign colleagues on our behaviour to get more clarity on our cultural traits. In this article we are going to talk about different nations and their culture between Indonesia, Philippines, and Russia.
Indonesian Culture
It is quite easy to make a friend with the Indonesian since we are not really introvert and we like talking and sharing of the ideas the only problem is the problem of language. Indonesia love to invite everyone to their home to have lunch or dinner together and spent their free time to talk. You will be questioning what makes our country special? And the answer is Indonesia are archipelago country, we have so many different culture where we can show the tolerance to each other. It is going to be very amazing, but it is sometimes difficult and we have to face some violence.
The lovely thing, in our culture we use to smile and hospitalize to everyone we love to talk to each other even we just know on the street or in public area it’s weird but we do it anyway. And we don’t hesitate to say this person is my friend this person is my family even we just met.
 Tradition & Religion
In Indonesia, we have 5 religions, they are Islam as the majority, followed by Catholic, Protestant, Buddhist, and Hindu. It’s amazing to have many different religions and cultures as long as we keep the tolerance and appreciate each other.
We can say that tradition and religion here in Indonesia are stick together they could not be apart. For examples, people from Bali province are Hindu, but as Hindu in Bali they have the different tradition as Hindu in India, and we have different wedding tradition within Indonesia, in Bali we have so many steps for the wedding it is almost over 3 weeks for the ceremony.
Why do we have that kind of tradition and religion? Because long years ago, before those religions came to Indonesia we already had our own cultures and traditions. Where each island in Indonesia ran their own culture and tradition as their ancients taught. Thus, while the culture and the tradition has been embedded in each person in Indonesia, then those religions alternately came into Indonesia, it was then that people in Indonesia chose which religion they believed, and live with both of them, their tradition and their religion simultaneously.
The Taboos
We are not allowed to mention the race in Indonesia since Indonesia is an archipelago country so we have so many race and culture diversity. We divided into 4 races: first we are negroid we live in Papua. Second, we are Weddoid we live in Maluku and East Nusa Tenggara (Kupang). Third, we are Proto Melayu we live in Sumatra, Jawa, Madura, Bali, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and West Nusa Tenggara. Fourth, we are Deutro Melayu we live in Sumatra, Kalimantan (Dayak), and Sulawesi.
How To Communicate and Have The Conversation
To give our point of view, we cannot be really strict (most of us) so when we have to give our point of view we usually search some polite words and we say it slowly (not the sound) but the way we talk. The main topics of conversation usually it is about family (how many kids do you have, where do they go to school).
But, every time we want to start a conversation we always have to remember who is the person that we talk to, because we always have to mention their title or simply to greet them. For examples, se greet the elder people by their title for example: for men we call them “Bapak” and for women we call them “Ibu”  then followed by their name it doesn’t matter first name or sure name. While we greet them we have to bow our head to show our politeness. For friends we use to hug and kiss them on the left and their right chick. But sometimes we just shaking hands and bowing our head and don’t forget to smile J. It’s not common to call our parents by their name we still have to call them Bapak/Ayah/Papa/Papi for father and Ibu/Bunda/Mama/Mami for mother.
Everday Life
We do not go work on Sunday as normal, we work from Monday to Friday, and on  Saturday we usually have half day of work, or just off. Our working hours normally 8 until 9 hours, from 8 or 9 am until 4 or 5 pm. But It depends on the entreprise we work.
On holiday, we really love to spend our free time to stay at home with the family just to have a long conversation and the word family here means WHOLE BIG FAMILY, or just hanging out with our friends, yeah as Indonesian we also love to hanging out with some friends outside. Unfortunately we do not have the four seassons vacation as other countries, but do not be sad we still have many national holidays considering that we have 5 religions in our countries, well we should respect each religion when they have their holiday celebration J.
Any superstitions? Yes we do have, two of them is: “if there is a butterfly/butterflies come to your home or your room it means we will receive a or some guests” and “if there is a crow come near by your house it means bad news (the death)”.
As a human being we never ever could ignoring the food, couldn’t you? No we could not! As Indonesian, considering that we are divided to many cultures we have VARIOUS traditional foods that we would die to to have it! And yes we have our own eating habits.
We have 3 times of eating breakfast at 7 am for 15 minutes but it depends on our school or working hour we can take it earlier. For lunch we usually have it between 12-2 pm we have it around 1 hours, and for dinner we have it between 6.30 – 8 pm and we have it for 1 or 1 and half hours. Normally, Indonesian do not eat in long time we eat very fast and we don’t have any appetizer or dessert we only have main course with the vegetables and meats, soups, fruits, and cakes can be eaten in the beginning or after the heavy meal. And the important thing we always eat the heavy meal even for the breakfast we love chicken porridge for our breakfast.
We are Indonesian we love to eat together and share everything together. For example Indonesian Restaurants don't serve the food by plates but the serves the food by the big portion of each menu and we will take some menus with rice of course and we have it and share it together. For addition, we do not apply table manner in our daily life, but it does not mean that we do not know it at all, unless in special occasion or in formal restaurants, we will apply that table manner, because our tradition is to eat by our fingers of our right hand.
Education and Rules
We take seriously about the education. Education in Indonesia is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture. In Indonesia, all citizens must undertake nine years of compulsory education which consists of six years at elementary level and three in secondary level. There is Islamic schools which are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Religious Affairs.
Education is defined as a planned effort to establish a study environment and education process so that the student may actively develop his/her own potential to gain the religious and spiritual level, consciousness, personality, intelligence, behavior and creativity to him/herself, other citizens and for the nation.
Education in Indonesia is divided into two major parts, formal and non-formal. Formal education is further divided into three levels, primary, secondary and tertiary education.
Schools in Indonesia are run either by the government or private sectors. Some private schools refer to themselves as "national plus schools" which means that they intend to go beyond the minimum government requirements, especially with the use of English as medium of instruction or having an international-based curriculum instead of the national one.
Big issue in our country relating to the rules is, normally we are allowed to get the driving license in 18 years old to drive car and 16 years old to ride motorcycle, but in Indonesia we still have to fight for the corruption so we can pay more to some agent to get the license earlier. The worse is it’s now become a tradition even we are already in qualified age to apply the license we still have to pay more to get the license easier and when we are trying to be idealist and fight the corruption by ignoring the agent who come after us to offer their service we will get much difficulties and we won’t get any license for years.
Filipino Culture
Country as special – Filipino is known for being hospitable. Moreover, people loves celebration even a simple one. You can notice that even though they have problems in life still they are happy, and full of smile in their faces.
How to Communicate
Greetings to elder people – To show respect to the elder people, they used the word “po” or “opo” in Philippines. In a family member, majority of young people kiss the grandparents and their parents too as part of greeting or by getting the right hand of the elder and placed it on the head.
People have a lot of choice to call their father and mother. If you are belong to the upper class or your family have money and you have a big house with cars, they use mommy and daddy or just Dad and Mam. If you are part of the middle class usually they call their parents as Mama and Papa. For the lower class, they use “Tatay” and “Nanay” and sometimes “ Ina”  for mother and” Ama” for father.

To Greeting friends, majority in Philippines just say Hi and Hello and ask how are you? how is your day?   But nowadays , gentlemen do handshake and ladies do kiss  and we call it ”beso beso”.
Tips to have friend- Majority of the Filipino is easy to became friend, just be you. Show them your real personality, your attitude, your habits, the way you speak everything, they will accept you for who you are. Also be open to criticism and suggestion, true friends is the one who will be in your side and understand what ever situation you have.
There are some taboos in Philippines we have to becareful to discuss about religion because this may create misunderstanding. It is fine to talk about religion if you belong to the same group. Another thing that you should avoid in the discussion is about politics especially during election period. Sometimes it causes you to a physical trouble.
Daily Life
Main Food – Same as Indonesia their main food is rice, of course they have noodles and breads but for main daily meals they prefer to have rice. Of course in a table you have to observed table manners especially when you are attending in a formal occasion.
In giving point of view, they usually speak directly with the main issue but  still we need to be careful with the feelings of other people on what you are going to say.  We always give constructive criticism.
Sleeping in others house is common in Philippines, especially when you are friends and sometimes if you have homework to do or project with your classmates it is better to sleep in your classmates’ house. It is acceptable in our country.

Speak about driving license in Philippines at the age of 18, you can now apply for the student driving license, just submit required documents and payment. Professional driving license can be obtain if you passed all examination both in written and in actual.
National Day, Holiday, Special Day
In Philippines they have a lot of National Holiday.  Christmas day during December, New Year, every 1st day of May, they celebrate Labor Day. Every 12th of June, they celebrate our Independence. November 1 is consider as holiday as they celebrate as All saints Day and November 2 as the day of all the dead. they also have numerous special Holidays depending to the proclamation of their President.
Russian Culture
Relationship, Dating, Marriage
When a guy and a lady went for a date, usually the man is the one who pay for the food, transportation and for the cinema.  I asked Galina if the guy visit to the house of the girl asking permission Weddings usually last for two days. But quite often the second day of the wedding is celebrated in a shortened version.
As a rule, the wedding day begins with the bride price when the groom and his friends trying to prove the bride's family the right to marry her. The tradition of bride price originated in ancient times. As the name of this ceremony, the groom then literally bathed bride from her family with money.
But nowadays bride price turn into a hilarious comic effect, where the money is sometimes overshadowed and play just symbolic (but not always), and the fore fun contests and jobs for the groom. Passing one test after another, the groom is slowly but surely coming to his bride. Ransom ends when the groom to the bride breaks, and gave her wedding bouquet.
After the bride price is usually a small reception when guests admonishes the bride and groom before a trip to the registry office, teaching them to love and respect each other for their life together. Filling out all the necessary formalities, the young couple to the sound of a march by Mendelssohn, accompanied by her wedding procession enters the hall solemn registration of marriages
Soft voice leading, short groom and bride cries, "Yes", "Yes". And for future newlyweds come to the table and secured signatures your marriage. It was from that moment on they become husband and wife. Then the wedding procession goes to the church, where the bride and groom make the mystery wedding, pinning thus their marriage, not only to people but to God. Of course, this only happens if the wedding is planned in the program of the wedding day. Orthodox wedding rite takes about 40 minutes.
Married, the couple, along with their guests going to the wedding walk Weddings usually last for two days. But quite often the second day of the wedding is celebrated in a shortened version. As a rule, the wedding day begins with the bride price when the groom and his friends trying to prove the bride's family the right to marry her.
Death, Funeral
Russian funeral rite is based on both pagan Slavic representation and the Orthodox traditions. The corpse of the deceased was interred in a specially fenced cemetery resembles both the city and park, and then buried outside the cemetery just suicides. The dead body is placed inside the coffin, and can put your favourite items of the deceased. To the place of burial coffin carries a specially equipped car, hearse. In carrying the coffin they follow the belief that body endure feet first, but put his head to the west.
There will also funeral programs, Appreciations are wreaths and bouquets of flowers but please take note that it is important to give even number of flowers. The coffin was lowered into the grave. Relatives of the deceased in the coffin throw clods. After the burial of the deceased in the home occurs commemoration. Mirrors curtain fabric, in a conspicuous place is dead picture in a black frame, before which sometimes place a shot of vodka. Black clothes are wearing during the ceremony.
In Russia the main religion is Orthodox Christianity. Amost 49 % of the population belongs to that religion.  They also have other religions such as Islam, Tengrianism, Buddhism, Protestantism, Hinduism, Catholicism, and Judaism.
Russian people greet elder people by their title for example: for men we call them “Muzhchina or Dedushka” and for women we call them “Zhenshchina or Babuska” , if you do not know them. If we know, then they use the first name and patronymic-name.
Like other country, for women hugs and kisses do when greeting friends and for men just hand shake. Children called their father and mother is called as “Papa” and “Mama”. Russian known as their traditional dance, and one of the famous russian song that has been famous all over the the world is "Kalinka".
People in Russia spend 10 years in education. Children go to school from 6-7 years. Three years of primary school, 7 years old - high school. The academic year is divided into quarters. After school, they have college (secondary vocational education - 3 years) or university (4 years - Bachelor's degree and 2 years for Master.
Food, eating habits

 If the dining table is a mixed company, the man should pour into glasses and beverages alcohol for woman. When eating food should chew with your mouth closed. During the meal they must not did not issue any sounds and eat quietly, modestly, not overtaking and keeping up with the rest. In Russian service: they put on the table a few salads in big bowls. And everyone leaves himself a little in a small bowl. Potatoes, porridge, soups, especially borsch are the common meal in Russia.
Russia celebrate different holidays such as; New Year, Christmas, National Women’s Day, and June 12 for commemorating the independence of Russia from the sovereign of USSR.
Other Information
At the age of 18, they can now have driver license and drive a car. Similarly to other country like Philippines and Indonesia there is also issue of bribery - without the "bribe", it is difficult to pass the exam on driver licence. Curfew is also implemented in Russia. Children under 18 not allowed being outside the home after 11 pm without adult. Galina also shared some tips on how to gain friends in Russia. It is simple; majority are sociable and like to meet new people. She added that in Russia there is a problem of language.

[1] Culture definition by Kim Ann Zimmermann, , retrieving Wednesday 20 March 2013.

dimanche 3 août 2014


Putu Ratih Pertiwi
Master 2 Tourism and Hospitality Management
Université Angers

Today, in this globalization era we find cross-culture everywhere, for example we have western culture, eastern culture, Latin culture, Middle-Eastern culture, and African culture especially in big city of the country like New York, Paris, London, etc. where the population come from all over the world and the culture is influenced by the many groups of people who make up the country.

Culture by it self could be defined as the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts.[1] Therefore, we need to be able to tolerate the other foreign culture to be accepted by the others.
In this article we will talk about an event in Paris, France “Carnaval Tropical de Paris” where we can see that cross culture is not always an issue but it can be such a facility to uniting people from all over the world. To open their mind that they are living in one place with a rich of culture diversity, so they can understand about each other culture, each other way of life, to decrease misunderstanding between people from different countries, and for additions they can preserve their culture for their next generation even they are living in globalization era.
The Great Feast of Culture Diversity in Paris
Colored in the streets, fancy dress parade, and of course lots of music! Every year we can see the carnival hits an area in Paris. With the zouké - it is how they call the Zouk dance and music and tambourine all of the invited groups from all over the world, they sing and dance to the rhythm of their beautiful traditional music. By this carnival with all the costumes that they wore we can feel the authentic flavor of the tropical in this capital city.

Every July, The Carnaval Tropical de Paris, takes places in the streets this event comes just after “World Music Day” always brings the rhythm and passion from the Caribbean to France. The carnival is a wonderful celebration of cultural diversity, peace and freedom. Last carnival took place on 7th of July 2012, it was the 11th edition of this event. There were around 2000 singers, dancers and musicians wore colorful costumes and made their way from Place de la Nation, it’s a square in Paris on the11th and 12th arrrondissement (administrative districts) to Place de Pantin on the 5th arrrondissement.
Groups of Colombia, Mayotte, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion, China or Vietnam parading alongside of Paris and they already prepared for this event for several months, they made the parade on foot or aboard decorated floats followed by Zouk music. The name Zouk took from the extract of the word Creole that has the meaning as “feast or festival”, actually it is a dance comes from Martinique and Guadeloupe islands. But in this carnival they use Zouk music to start and to end the carnival, where we can see the women and men dance, when the men take the women’s waist and she linked to her arm around the neck.
A Rich of Ethnic Diversity is How This Event Comes
 As the biggest immigrant population in Europe, with almost 10 million immigrants (out of 60 million total) in France and around 1.5 million in Paris itself.[2] We cannot deny the depth of Paris’s racial and ethnic diversity, which stems from its colonial past, in 1939 the French colonial empire stretched over all of West and North Africa across the Sahara desert. We still can see the rest of the old empire’s diversity in northeast Paris and northern suburbs where you will find over hundreds of thousands Africans, Asians, Antilleans, and Arabs, who live and make Paris as their home.
 Likewise, in 13th arrondissement in Paris where the Chinese community is really significant, it has their own history of Vietnamese Revolution in the past 1887 until 1954 when the homeland of the Southeast Asian was the part of French Indochina and it spread throughout the city. Of course we still count for the native of Guadeloupe and Martinique known as The Antilles who have the big contribution as well for mixed racial heritage in France.
Martinique and Guadeloupe are located in the East of Caribbean islands as well as the small South American nation of French Guiana, these three are registered in the Caribbean Departments of France. The last but not least is the island of Reunion where located to the West of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. Nowadays, around over than one million Antilleans, Guyanese, and Réunionese are living in France and most of them based in Paris Metropolitan area.
The big immigration from North Africa to France has begun since the 1860 when North African known as Maghreb (beginning with Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco) are offered full French citizenship however most of them are refused because to be a full French citizenship it means has to leave Islam. Then, in 1960s when they won independence from France by successfully demanded the equal rights for Muslim in the Maghreb the immigration comes stronger and today more than 6 million Arabs living in France. Majority is living in Paris, Marseilles, and the other metropolitan cities in southern of France.[3]
By those histories it is reflecting cultural diversity through this Carnival, the celebration, the tolerance and the joy. The first goal by this event is to facilitate the citizen from overseas especially the young generation who live in France and live so far from their original culture which is their past generation’s country to remind their culture, so that they will able to preserve their own culture although they are living in France. Other objective from this event focus on the promotion of tourism not only in Paris and Ile de France but also the promotion of tourism and culture development in The Antilles.
Who are in Charge for This Event?

This carnival organized by Mairie de Paris (General Overseas Delegation of the City of Paris (DGOM)) part of the Paris city authority concerned with supporting the welfare and cultural traditions of Parisians born overseas with the support of the Federation of Tropical Carnival, Federation of Paris Tropical Carnival is composed of fifty associations maskers. Where Teddy Lacroix seats as the President of the Federation of Tropical Carnival of Paris.
There is also the Queen of Carnival, which elected in eight departments of the Ile-de-France in March and April. The candidates of the Queen prepare with the sponsorship of a local association, a member of the Federation of Paris Tropical Carnival. The sponsor organization supports them in the creation of their costume, preparing the parade, dances and also gives them their experience of past elections.
In addition to them all, they are supported as well by France Antilles Activilong, FM Space Travel Caribbean that offers gifts to candidates for the title of Queen of the Carnival Tropical de Paris. Photographer Thierry Coulaud realizes all photos. With the theme of the last Carnaval Tropical de Paris in 2012 - Le Sixième Continent - The Sixth Continent, we know that all citizens play a big role as participants for this carnival. Some 4000 people from Martinique, Guadeloupe, Mayotte, Island of Reunion, French Polynesia, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, China, Vietnam, and other corners of the globe took part for this event.
And many of association participated in this event for example some of them are Alizees 78 The association was founded July 6, 2006 by Michel Sioul, the President, in order to promote the art and folklore of the Caribbean and Indian Ocean. There was also Batucada Brasis, was created in 2001 currently chaired by Mrs de Araujo Verginia Szewczyk this association aims to develop “learning and the dissemination of Brazilian culture”. Bloco de Paris involved as well for this event, this association inspired by the large groups of Rio de Janeiro, was born of a group of sambistas (musicians playing samba) in Paris. 

The B.K.B was born on October 25, 2007 under the leadership of a group of young people from the same culture, the same region, the same island and found their selves in a world where the values ​​are not the same and where people around the world meet. It has always been the heart of promoting youth meetings around sports and culture, in particular the Caribbean culture. Their motto isThe cultures meet, clash, speak differently and in ways just as rewarding as each other”.
Those only some of them and they still have many others associations who participated for this huge event. It is not stop by here because there is a Carnival Tropical de Paris in this July 2013 and everybody is waiting for this event not only to watch and enjoy it but they also excited to participate and get involve to it.
This Carnival Allows The Mixture of All Cultures And Brings People Together
Sometimes culture can be a wall for us but when we have an effort to understand and appreciate the others, certainly we can break the wall. To be accepted in society, we have to know how to communicate with the others, whether in little scoop society for example within the family member where we almost have the same culture or moreover when we are in bigger scoop where we have so many different culture for example in international society which is going to be more complicated.
In this case, we can see that Paris not only as the capital city of France but also it is one of the big city in the world where its past history will answer the multicultural citizens who live in this city. How its citizens can be able to live together even we cannot deny there is still ethnic diversity issue, fortunately this country - this city still have a number of persons who care about it and they are not only care, they are working hard on it!
One of the tangible efforts that we clearly can see is this event, The Carnaval Tropical de Paris is such a biggest festive event in the world and it allows the mixture of all cultures and brings people together. The objective of this event of course to boosts the tourism promotion in Paris and the others participants’ countries, to increase the number of tourist arrival in those countries. But more than that economic reason, by this event it could stimulate people to have an awareness on cultural diversity, be aware on the other culture is the foundation of communication on our life.
Firstly, it could help us to understand ourselves, be aware to our behavior, values, beliefs, and our point of view. Secondly, after we know where we stand on we would be able to understand the others, be aware to their behavior, their values, beliefs, and their perception, so that people can live easily together even they perfectly come from different country – different culture.
Beside of that, it is a chance for the citizen from overseas to reminisce their culture by the traditional music, their traditional dance, their traditional song, and their traditional costume. And a big chance for the young citizen from overseas to not forgetting their ancestor, bringing them to their authentic culture that is really important for the development of the culture in world to preserve it and prevent the lost of ancient culture, so that we can share it and transmit it to the future generations.
Putu Ratih Pertiwi

Culture definition by Kim Ann Zimmermann, retrieving on Monday 20 May 2013.

Google Book: Kiratiana Freelon. 2010. Kiratiana’s Travel Guide to Black Paris: Get Lost and Get Found. Retrieving on Sunday 31 May 2013.

Pictures Source by Google Image of Carnaval Tropical de Paris 2012.

[1] Culture definition by Kim Ann Zimmermann, , retrieving Monday 20 May 2013.
[2] Google Book: Kiratiana Freelon. 2010. Kiratiana’s Travel Guide to Black Paris: Get Lost and Get Found.
[3] Google Book: Kiratiana Freelon. 2010. Kiratiana’s Travel Guide to Black Paris: Get Lost and Get Found.